From the Pyrenees to the Rhone he was unopposed, but at the Rhone a sizeable Gallic army was waiting for him on the opposite bank of the river. Immediately after the battle, he began his march to Italy, which suggests that his army was not badly damaged by the battle, and it may be that a truer image of the battle would be as a delaying action fought by Hasdrubal to allow his army to begin it's march. The resulting battle of Ilipa saw Scipio outwit his opponents. Planning guide. The first encounters went Hannibal's way. While this war was a lot shorter than the First Punic War, it is most well known for the Carthage leader Hannibal who caused massive damage to the Romans. Hog Farm Bacon 00:31, 11 October 2020 (UTC) This was a unique strategy for a Roman general of this period, who were far more likely to attack at the first chance. Massalian people,which were long time rivals of Carthaginians, also encouraged them to go in war. Hasdrubal Barca, the overall Punic commander in Spain, led a small army in a quick raid against the Roman fleet, which caught out some Roman detachments, but was too small to remain safely north of the Ebro, and Hasdrubal retreated south, leaving Rome with a secure base in northern Spain. Hannibal: Rome and Carthage in the Second Punic War to strategia pozwalająca na wcielenie się w Hannibala i poprowadzenie jego wojsk przeciwko Imperium rzymskiemu. Despite this first setback, Roman morale remained good. Publius Cornelius Scipio accompanied his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus to Spain, then he returned to Italy, in order to beat Hannibal at the Alps passages. Surrounded, Hannibal's army was destroyed. Roman power in Spain collapsed. Jun 29, 2019 - Explore Lee Hadley's board "2nd Punic War" on Pinterest. Finally, Sicilian grain played a major part in feeding both the population of Rome, and the many legions by then in the field. It prevented Carthage from using Sicily as a base to reinforce Hannibal in Italy. Rome emerged from the war utterly transformed. ^ The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", and is a reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. The Second Punic War took place in the years 218-201 BCE between Carthage and Rome. Scipio was in Massalia when he heard the news of Hannibal’s movement. Even so, the battle lasted for three hours, and Hannibal's own losses were not trivial. The Second Punic War (also called the Second Carthaginian War) was the second of three conflicts, known collectively as “The Punic Wars,” fought between the ancient powers of Rome and Carthage — a powerful city and imperial entity located across the Mediterranean from Southern Italy in modern-day Tunisia. In the event, a massacre committed by a Roman commander had more effect, but none of this stopped the siege, which ground on through 212 BC, increasingly favouring the Romans, first when they captured one part of the city, then when plague almost destroyed the Carthaginian army, and finally, towards the end of the year when the last great Carthaginian supply fleet turned away without reaching the city. Minucius returned his power to Fabius. Mago's attack in the Roman rear was the turning point of the battle, although the Roman defeat was still not as severe as those to come. The Roman disaster was made complete a few days later when Hannibal destroyed Geminius's cavalry, coming ahead of the rest of his army, and effectively stopping him in his tracks. Regardless, the treaty did not last. Capture of Malta – Roman army under Tiberius Sempronius Longus conquers the Carthaginian-held island of Malta. The massive Roman force outnumbered Hannibal by close to 30,000 men, and the battlefield would give no obvious advantage to Hannibal. In 209 BC, he conquered the New Carthage, using low tide of the sea and he penetrated from only available side, which was the side by the sea. Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. The 4000 Numidian cavalry were on the right, facing the Latin horse. What would have happened if Hannibal had arrived at Rome is impossible to tell. Hannibal hoped to provoke Fabius into an attack, but he was not to be shifted from his plan, and simply watched Hannibal ravage the area from the safety of the surrounding mountains. At first, the Romans had a success, they occupied Sagunto, but in 211 BC, both Scipio’s brothers were defeated and killed by Carthaginians. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia River, Flaminius, at Lake Trasimene, Paullus, at Cannae, and Scipio, at Zama. In the autumn of 211 BC Marcus managed to conquer Syracuse. Scipio chose to split his force. In 219 BC, Hannibal (son of Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian general during the First Punic War) broke the tentative peace between the two cities and laid siege to Saguntum (in eastern Spain), then an ally of Rome. At the Trebia he had managed to choice both the time and place of battle, and with an unorthodox plan was able to defeat a larger Roman force. When he did arrive before the city in 211 BC, there was never any danger that he could take the city, or force a settlement, but by then Roman fortunes had recovered. Flaminius was killed at the beginning of the battle. All citizens, who were older than 17 years were asked to join in defending the Rome. Although the Second Punic War spread to Greece, the fighting there, known as the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC) was something of a side issue, and involved almost no Punic troops, and rarely more than a single Roman legion. The remains of Roman troops were stopped and young military tribune Publius Cornelius Scipio Younger (son of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus) placed them in order. The gradual twist happened when the Romans conquered several cities that belonged to Carthaginians. Hannibal set out from New Carthage towards the end of the spring 218. This was probably the only offensive option open to Carthage, but it was still a massive gamble. South of the Ebro Carthaginian conquests made before the war were still only loosely controlled, while the area north of the Ebro had been smashed through by Hannibal. Although this new Punic army outnumbered the Roman force, Scipio was willing to offer battle. Hannibal and the Second Punic War, 218-201BC Audio-Visual Resources. The invasion force set sail for Africa early in the spring on 204 BC. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, one of the most gifted commanders in history, but the Romans had their own great general Scipio Africanus, an… Several hours of fighting saw 50,000 Roman soldiers killed, a bloodbath rarely equalled in a single days fighting, even on the western front. Hannibal's plan relied on the fighting ability of his men. However, Publius Cornelius Scipio had to stay in the northern Italy due to the rebel of Gauls. In a dramatic scene in the Carthaginian senate, the leader of the Roman delegation declared war. The Roman army split into two, one third under Cnaeus, two thirds under Publius, and moved to face the three Punic armies. Carthaginian army marched 4 days and 3 nights up til waits and chests in the water. Hannibal's plan relied on his gaining support amongst the Gauls, and he could thus not back down from this first Roman threat, while Scipio acted as all Roman generals of the time did, secure in his belief that his troops were superior. The siege had to be abandoned, while the messages were intercepted. Moreover, Hannibal only had two options. Scipio now turned his attention to Africa. He started marching from New Carthage, in the spring 218 BC, crossed the Pyrenees and marched along the coast. On the day of the battle, Scipio changed his deployment, and at first light deployed closer to the Punic camp. The years immediately after the war saw Rome gain control over large areas of Greece and defeat the successors to Alexander the Great. Hannibal just had to cross the Pyrenees and the Alps, which up until then no one has ever done against so many hostile armies. Activities inside of the country, as well as the war with the Gauls, did not give to the Romans the opportunity to provide serious resistance to Carthaginian power in Spain. Naval Battles. By 220 the city of Saguntum, some way south of the Ebro, had allied with Rome. However, by the end of the second century, large numbers of slaves were pouring into Rome, either as prisoners of war or purchased abroad by the new wealthy class of Romans who now employed large staffs of domestic servants or invested as slaves as business ventures. In 221 BC, Hasdrubal the Fair was killed and Hannibal Barca took over his place (Hamilcar’s son) which at that time was 25 years old. Hannibal: The Second Punic War, is a two-player game that covers the conflict between Carthage and Rome, during the period of 218 to 195 B.C. It was very hard for Marcus to conquer the city because all the supplies and raising the fortification around the city was participated by famous antique physicist and mathematician Archimedes. He was a princeps of Senate and he was recognized as a saviour of homeland. The next day he was able to provoke the Roman's into giving battle. The resulting battle of the Trebia saw Hannibal defeat a larger Roman force, probably of some 42,000 men. Carthage needed a solution to improve its weakened economy, after receiving a heavy blow with the loss of Sicily. The Roman legions were a fearsome fighting machine, and the Spanish and Celtic troops came close to defeat. The capture of Syracuse did not give Roman uncontested control of Sicily. However, in comparison the Roman losses were devastating. Denied battle, Scipio returned to the coast, where he send his army on to Spain, while himself returning to Italy to face Hannibal. Instead of using a single large army, Rome now began to field multiple smaller armies. Cnaeus was killed, and his army overwhelmed. That's it from me, I think. If the Punic centre had been defeated, then Hannibal's army would have been rendered harmless. Publius and Cnaeus Scipio decided to launch an major offensive in 211 BC. Heidenheim an der Brenz and Hellenstein Castle, Cnut the Great as King of England (1016-1035), Briefly about the conflict between Hannibal and Romans, Neanderthal (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis), Valcamonica, Camunian prehistoric culture, Large number of bottles from 6 century discovered near Istanbul. The Second Punic War. Many soldiers were lost, many of them fell of their horses, only one elephant stayed alive. The new war plan was counted on the depletion of the opponent, because it predicted an inevitable defeat in a decisive battle. On the Roman right wing, Paullus commanded the Roman cavalry, 2,400 strong, guarding the River flank, while on the left, Varro commanded the 3,600 allied cavalry, up against the hill of Cannae. They decided to surrender under conditions of free retreat. In five months he had marched an army from Spain, all the way into northern Italy. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. August – Hannibal conquered Catalonia. It is also unclear what happened in Rome. From that point, the position of Hannibal, who did not receive the necessary help from the Carthaginian oligarchy, became very difficult. Rome was expecting him to adopt the same passive approach that the Carthaginians had followed in the first war, waiting in Spain for the Roman attack. Hannibal was also weakened by losses and he tried to take advantage of the Roman defeat in the diplomatic purposes. For several days, Senate deliberated on the situation. Punic Wars. This impressed the Romans so much that against all customs Marcus was declared as second dictator. With this in mind, it is argued that a march on Rome could hardly have had a worse result. Despite this setback, 208 was to see another Punic expedition from Spain to Italy. Second Punic War Battles > Battle of Geronium. Hannibal moved from Apulia to Samnium and from there he moved to Campania where he collected food supplies. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). The two scouting commanders met at the battle of Ticinus (November 218 BC), a small-scale battle notable only as the first of Hannibal's battles on Italian soil. To guard against this, one consul, Servilius Geminus was sent to the east coast, the other, Caius Flaminius to guard the passes, each with a normal consular army. The Punic Wars were a series of wars between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic that would catalyze the growth of the Roman territorial holdings as well as shape the ancient world for centuries to come. Second Punic War Background Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. Certainly there were strong Roman forces near to the city, which would have arrived in Rome before Hannibal, and the cities defences would have made it very hard for Hannibal to take the city. In Rome, this caused fights between various political groups. Over the next decades, Rome took over control of both Corsica and Sardinia as well, but Carthage was able to establish a new base of influence in Spain beginning in 237 B.C., under the leadership of the powerful general Hamilcar Barca and, later, his son-in-law Hasdrubal. So the Second Punic War, largest conflict on antiquity, is mainly known by epic battles like Cannae or Zama and great leaders – Hannibal Barca and Scipio Africanus. Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. Having defeated every army sent against him, it is natural that Hannibal would have expected to be able to repeat the performance. Rome faced one final threat in Italy. This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania . Number of the rebels increased so much that it doubled the number of the Hannibal’s army. 10,000 legionaries from the centre of the Roman line were able to escape by breaking through Hannibal's own centre, but by then the battle was lost, and all they could do was make their escape. This is my first solo timeline so let's see how it goes. When a tribe allied to Carthage started to raid Saguntum's territory, Hannibal sided with the allied tribe, and despite a direct warning from the Romans not to, attacked Saguntum (Spring 219 BC). Once the Romans had advanced far enough, the heavy Libyan infantry was to plunge into the sides of the by then disordered Roman legions, while the Punic cavalry attacked the rear. It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Hannibal never lost a major battle in Italy, but the war was lost. Hannibal besieged the town under the pretext that the Sagunto attacked one of the tribes, which were under Carthage authority. A major Roman-Greek force was mobilized under the command of the great hero of the Second Punic War, Scipio Africanus, and set out for Greece, beginning the Roman-Syrian War. His task was made easier by the Carthaginian commander, who dismissed Muttines and replaced him with his own son. In 211 BC Rome signed an alliance with the Aetolian league, one of the stronger powers in Greece, and Philip found himself under attack from several sides at once. Democratic groups won in this battle. The First Macedonian War (215–205) broke out when King Philip V pressed his ambitions in Illyria after he perceived a weakening of Roman power in the wake of Cannae. Despite a brief attempt to fight on, Rome and Macedonia made peace in 205 (Peace of Phoinike), on terms relatively advantageous to Macedonia. Rome was remarkably generous to those cities that returned to Roman allegiance voluntarily, rather than after defeat, and once the tide started to turn against Hannibal, many communities took the chance to disentangle themselves from his cause. In 201 BC, a peace was concluded. Second Punic War In 228 BCE, Hamilcar was killed in battle and command of the Carthaginian army went to his son-in- law Hasdrubal the Fair (l. c. 270-221 BCE). The cavalry on the wings would hold Hannibal's superior horse for long enough for the infantry to do its job and destroy the Punic infantry, thus ending the threat from Hannibal. Both sides now advanced towards each other along the River Po, both obviously intending to give battle. He entered into an alliance with the Gauls shortly after the Romans conquered them. Many Senators and military tribunes were left on the battlefield, including Lucius Aemilius Paullus. Only one fleet arrived to reinforce him, in 214, and an attempt to reinforce from Spain met with eventual disaster, as we will see below. On his arrival in Sicily, Scipio settled down to train his army. The resulting battle saw a Roman victory, apparently ended by the weather, which prevented an attack on the strong Punic camp. It was the first major Roman victory of the war, an important morale boost. Control of finances allowed the payment of contributions, without burdening the citizens by excessive taxes – a discontent of oligarchic party and the Romans suspiciousness. This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war. The next year Hannibal was forced to march to defend his most important ally, but the Romans were not willing to risk a battle, and remained in their fortified lines. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Luckily, it turned out that the Gauls returned to their villages every night, and Hannibal was able to capture their strong positions overnight. What is certain is that the crossing was highly dangerous. Flaminius died, although whether after panicking (Polybius) or after leading his men well (Livy), is unclear, and his army destroyed. The retreat turned into a rout under strong Roman pressure. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. The Romans, meanwhile, built up their strength and eventually counterattacked, leading to a Roman victory. According to some sources from the Roman army which numbered more than 50 000 people only 14 000 soldiers were saved. What little protest there was against this in the Senate of Carthage was overruled by Hannibal, who knew that the war was lost. Hannibal established alliances with the tribes in the eastern Iberian Peninsula thanks to his diplomatic skills. He also had to prepare his army for battle - the war in Sicily had not seen great set piece battles. The Celtic and Spanish infantry were position slightly ahead of the rest of the army. Third Punic War + Third Punic War Links He managed to make a peace with some indigenous Celtic tribe, while with other tribe he had to fight war. His battle plan was suitably simple. Scipio was desperate not to see his victory usurped by a new commander and was determined to force an end to the war. Soon after that, Capua capitulated and was brutally punished by Romans. He was satisfy with the fact that he ravaged surrounding fields. - Contact Us - Search - Recent - About Us - Subscribe in a reader - Join our Google Group The solution was a military expedition to obtain the riches of the Iberian Peninsula. Very well-written article covering a large topic. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. The towns of southern Hispania were subdued by Carthage. Neither consul had been killed, and their successors were appointed as normal. By then, the Roman and Latin cavalry had been defeated, and the Legions were surrounded. After the war Rome had gained Spain, secured control over the Mediterranean islands, and seen her first direct involvement in Greece. Hannibal route Second Punic War Publius Cornelius Scipio (Elder)– a Consul from 218 BC was already moving in the direction of Spain, because he wanted to fight with Hannibal.