Autoglazed and overglazed surfaces showed the mean roughness value (Ra) of 0.4217±0.0685, 0.3450±0.0729. Conclusion. Conclusion: Ni-Cr-T3 with VMK Master Porcelain has the greatest shear bond strength. The L* values of all alloys changed significantly after each stage except for 2 alloys (V-Deltaloy SF (N-VDSF)) and (Gnathos Plus (HN-GP)) after casting and airborne-particle abrasion (P<.05). This, combined with their morphologic characteristics (having cusps that can be wedged apart), makes them more susceptible to fracture (4). Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, 5th Edition provides a strong foundation in basic science along with clear descriptions of clinical applications. Using more than 3,000 high-quality drawings and photographs, this reference covers everything from tooth preparation to prostheses … active decay. To evaluate the effect of different primers on the bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia ceramic surface in vitro. the potential for tooth wear is followed by a review of recommended preparation design Objective: To evaluate the current practices of disinfection of dental impressions and their protocols and to assess the knowledge, PURPOSE: Twenty-four dental students of the sixth-year class were recruited to verify the predicibility of this technique. All bonded specimens were stressed to evaluate the cement-substrate shear bond strength. No difference was noticed between all test groups in terms of cement-substrate bond strength. Using more than 3 000 high-quality drawings and photographs this reference covers everything from tooth preparation to prostheses and restorations to follow-up care. Principles of Tooth Preparations 10. Therefore, employment of this low-cost alloy is recommended in metal-ceramic restorations. This article reviews the concept of PFDP abutment TOC and presents an alternative definition of what TOC is, defining it as the extent to which the shape of an abutment differs from an ideal cylinder shape of an abutment. This text provides a strong foundation in basic science, followed by practical step-by-step clinical applications. A Comparison between Shear Bond Strength of VMK Master Porcelain with Three Base-metal Alloys (Ni-cr-T3, VeraBond, Super Cast) and One Noble Alloy (X-33) in Metal-ceramic Restorations, Effect of Different Luting Cements on Fracture Resistance in Endodontically Treated Teeth, Radiographic assessment of clinical root-crown ratios of permanent teeth in a healthy Korean population, Cytotoxicity Testing of Temporary Luting Cements with Two- and Three-Dimensional Cultures of Bovine Dental Pulp-Derived Cells, A Comparative Study of the Stress Distribution in Different EndodonticPost-RetainedTeeth with and without Ferrule Design—A Finite Element Analysis, Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques, The effect of different fiber reinforcements on flexural strength of provisional restorative resins: An in-vitro study, Shade variance in ceramic restoration and shade tab: An in vitro study, A Case Report of treatment of a 16-year old girl with Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns, Considerations for ceramic inlays in posterior teeth: A review, In Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Core Thickness and Fabrication Stages on the Marginal Accuracy of an All-Ceramic System, Evaluation of maxillary anterior teeth and their relation to the golden proportion in Malaysian population, Evaluation of efficiency of manual polishing over autoglazed and overglazed porcelain and its effect on plaque accumulation, A comparison of marginal fit of glass infiltrated alumina copings fabricated using two different techniques and the effect of firing cycles over them, Evaluation of the onset of failure under mechanical and thermal stresses on luting agent for metal–ceramic and metal crowns by finite element analysis, Alternate metal framework designs for the metal ceramic prosthesis to enhance the esthetics, The effect of two marginal designs (chamfer and shoulder) on the fracture resistance of all ceramic restorations, Inceram: An in vitro study, A comparison of retentive strength of implant cement depending on various methods of removing provisional cement from implant abutment, Effects of the sintering conditions of dental zirconia ceramics on the grain size and translucency, Immediate Provisionalization and Nonfunctional Loading of a Single Implant in the Maxillary Esthetic Zone: A Clinical Presentation and Parameters for Consideration, Motor behavior during the first chewing cycle in subjects with fixed tooth- or implant-supported prostheses, Performance during first chewing cycle in patients with fixed prostheses, The Effect of Glass and Polyethylene Fiber Reinforcement on Flexural Strength of Provisional Restorative Resins: An In Vitro Study, Evaluation of the marginal fit of a zirconia ceramic computer-aided machined (CAM) crown system, Restorationof fractured maxillary central incissors:a case report, Fiber post techniques for anatomical root variations, Color change during the surface preparation stages of metal ceramic alloys, Elucidating the Problem of Pier Abutment through the Use of a Fixed Movable Prosthesis – A Clinical Case Report, Comparative Evaluation of Few Physical Properties of Epoxy Resin, Resin-Modified Gypsum and Conventional Type IV Gypsum Die Materials: An in vitro Study, Comparative evaluation of few physical properties of epoxy resin, resin-modified gypsum and conventional type IV gypsum die materials: An in vitro study, Comparative analysis of transmittance for different types of commercially available zirconia and lithium disilicate materials, A comparative study on the bond strength of porcelain to the millingable Pd-Ag alloy, Bonding quality of contemporary dental cements to sandblasted esthetic crown copings*, SALVAGE PERIODONTALLY COMPROMISED TEETH THROUGH BICUSPIDIZATION, Effects of different surface treatments on shear bond strength in two different ceramic systems, Delayed linear dimensional changes of five high strength gypsum products used for the fabrication of definitive casts, A comparative study to measure the condylar guidance by the radiographic and clinical methods, Proportions of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Relative to Each Other and to Golden Standard in Tabriz Dental Faculty Students, In Vitro Study Of Fracture Strength Of Provisional Crown Materials, Functional tooth restoration by next-generation bio-hybrid implant as a bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy, Marginal fit evaluation of 3 unit fixed dental prostheses fabricated by rapid prototyping method. } shoulder (1 mm). However, as indirect procedures require multiple appointments, the use of temporary restorations and temporary luting cements is necessary to cover the prepared part of the tooth and to protect the pulp from external stimuli, before a patient's cosmetic and functional needs are fully restored [2, 3]. Group B used a plastic curette and wet gauze, Group C used a rubber cup and pumice, and Group D used an airborne particle abrasion technique. procedures. } The first is mandibular movement, i.e. If transitional occlusal contact points on dentition during functional jaw movement can be observed graphically, it will dramatically improve the realization and evaluation of dental occlusion for both research and clinics. Moreover the flexible design also allows the patient to benefit from fixed prosthesis rather than a conventional removable prosthesis. [Stephen F Rosenstiel; Martin F Land; Junhei Fujimoto] -- Comprehensive, user-friendly text that offers dental students and practitioners an excellent opportunity to understand the basic principles of fixed prosthodontics… Find practical step-by-step guidelines to hundreds of fixed prosthodontics procedures! Cylinders of glass ionomer, universal resin, and self-adhesive resin cements were then built up on the sandblasted substrate surfaces of each group (n = 10). The crown portion of the fulcrum acts as the effort arm, and the root portion of the fulcrum functions as the resistance arm. Jul 3, 2016 - Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, 5e: 9780323080118: Medicine & Health Science Books @ Moreover, the total sum of values was higher for the new technique (total 41.2±3.98, p<0.05) compared to the conventional technique (total 38.12±5.18, p<0.05). RESULTS: There were significant differences in fracture resistance between the test groups (P<0.001). All factors examined (dental stone, time, storage condition) significantly affected the linear dimensional changes. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, 4th Edition is a comprehensive, user-friendly text that offers dental students and practitioners an excellent opportunity to understand the basic principles of fixed prosthodontics. Ecological - Manage your environmental impact with paperless books. Increasing thickness of core does not increase marginal fitness. For more strength resistance occlusal surface was prepared with a cusp shaped. Wax is used to make the patterns because it can be conveniently manipulated, precisely shaped and can also be completely eliminated from the mold by heating [. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test (α=.05). The majority of the laboratories did not have instructions related to disinfection of impressions. Background The shade was chosen based on the skin tone of the patient. Two commercially available zirconia materials (conventional and high translucency) and 2 lithium disilicate materials (conventional and high translucency) with standardized dimensions were fabricated. Find practical step-by-step guidelines to hundreds of fixed prosthodontics procedures! The mean R/C ratios varied from 1.29 to 1.89 (male: 1.28-1.84; females: 1.31-1.94). This bio-hybrid implant restored physiological functions, including bone remodelling, regeneration of severe bone-defect and responsiveness to noxious stimuli, through regeneration with periodontal tissues, such as periodontal ligament and cementum. Shade taking devices are designed to aid clinicians and technicians in the specification and control of tooth color. L*a*b* values of specimens were recorded after different stages of metal surface preparation (ingot, after casting, after oxidation, and after the OP application) in addition to the shade tab of OP B1 (target shade). Methods: Ten subjects with natural dentition, 11 with bimaxillary fixed tooth-supported prostheses (TSP) and 10 with bimaxillary fixed implant-supported prostheses (ISP) (mean age 69 (range 61-83)) chewed a hazelnut while their vertical and lateral jaw movements were recorded. Composite-based materials showed significantly higher fracture strengths than PMMA-based materials. Accurate execution of endodontic microsurgery to preserve the buccal bone is essential to avoid endo-perio communication. After glazing, no significant increase in gap was detected. The maximum force at fracture (Fmax) was measured in a universal test machine at 1 mm/min. Crown-to-root ratio has been applied to periodontally compromised teeth. Flexural strength between fiber-reinforced resin groups were compared by independent samples t-test. However, in bio-hybrid artificial organs, an artificial organ with fibrous connective tissues, including muscles, tendons and ligaments, has not been developed. Ten impressions were taken using a polyvinylsiloxane. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics 4th Edition is a comprehensive user-friendly text that offers dental students and practitioners an excellent opportunity to understand the basic principles of fixed prosthodontics. In selecting the materials (posts, resins) for these techniques, the dentist is advised not to cut corners, and to seek the strongest and most radiopaque products available. Marginal gap was measured after each stage of core fabrication, veneering and glaze firing. The independent t-test was used to assess for gender differences, and the paired t-test was used to compare both arches with a significance level of P<.05. Samples were loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture occurs. Data was analyzed by non-parametric statistics (α=.05). Managing such a partial edentulous situation with a fixed partial denture can be successfully accomplished by those who understand basic principles of using a non-rigid connector, custom made in the laboratory. The highest expansion values for all specimens in the experimental group were recorded at 24 hours. T-test of independent sample for statistical analysis was executed with SPSS 12.0K for Windows. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Materials and Method: Three different groups of base-metal alloys (Ni-cr-T3, Super Cast, and VeraBond) and one group of noble alloy (X-33) were selected. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three types of luting cements used for post cementation on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars, restored with resin composite. ... chamfer margin (0.7 mm depth) using a torpedo diamond bur [14] [15] (Fig. The total number of pixels in the figures created by plotting mandibular movement during the chewing cycle differed between the groups (P=0.055), being 94.8 x 103 for the natural group, 68.6 x 103 for the TSP group (P=0.049) and 63.2 x 103 for the ISP group (P=0.024), clearly illustrating the wider range of mandibular movement for those with natural teeth. The marginal fit of crowns is a concern for clinicians, and there is no conclusive evidence of any one margin configuration yielding better results than others in terms of marginal fit. Crown lengths and root lengths were measured with modified Lind's measurements using PACS tools by two examiners in two separate sessions two months apart. Autoglazed surfaces found to be the best surfaces with the least plaque accumulation (0.5237±0.4209%). This technology is now available by computing the distance between the maxillary and mandibular occlusal surfaces during jaw movement. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics 5th Edition Stephen Rosenstiel Martin Land Price: GBP 131.99 EUR 149.99 ISBN: 978-0-323-08011-8 Copyright date: Sep 25, 2015 Pages: 888 Available Elsevier Health Science . Using more than 3,000 high-quality drawings and photographs, this reference covers everything from tooth preparation to … Using more than 3,000 high-quality drawings and photographs, this reference covers everything from tooth preparation to prostheses and restorations to follow-up care. For cytotoxicity testing, bovine pulp-derived cells transfected with Simian virus 40 Large T antigen were exposed to extracts of eugenol-containing (Rely X Temp E) and eugenol-free (Provicol, PreVISION CEM, and Rely X Temp NE) temporary luting cements for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of the same materials was also evaluated in a dentin barrier test device using three-dimensional cell cultures of bovine pulp-derived cells. The color difference of OP for all alloys, regardless of their type, was not visually perceivable when compared to the target shade (ΔE<2.6). The highest expansion values for all specimens in the control group were recorded between 72 and 96 hours. All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). }, Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics 4th Edition is a comprehensive user-friendly text that offers dental students and practitioners an excellent opportunity to understand the basic principles of fixed prosthodontics. Two tailed unpaired 't test' was used to compare marginal gaps in two groups and one way ANOVA was used to analyze marginal distortion within each group at 95% confidence interval. These data may enhance the understanding of the clinical R/C ratio as a useful guideline for determining the status of teeth and the ethnic difference. Three groups of rectangular test specimens (n = 15) of each of the two resin/fiber reinforcement were prepared for flexural strength test and unreinforced group served as the control. Similarly the records were taken and transferred to the same articulator using the intra oral central bearing device to record the readings. The purpose of this study was conducted to evaluate whether consistent relationships exist between tooth width and height of the clinical crown dimensions; and to investigate the occurrence of the golden proportion of the maxillary anterior teeth. A device was used to standardize seating of copings on the metal die and positioning of the specimens under the microscope after each stage of fabrication. This, combined with their morphologic characteristics (having cusps that can be wedged apart), makes them more susceptible to fracture (. Taper of the preparation was 6° according to the requirements of ideal crown preparation, ... Schematic view of Metal-ceramic crown use in FE Simulation[20. The ANOVA revealed significant effects by material and no significant effects by marginal configuration for marginal gap. The cost of disinfectant was ranked as the most important factor (51.3% of the cases) for the dental technician to choose the disinfectant followed by its effectiveness. The ratio of cycle axis/cycle width differed (P=0.033), being 0.27 for the natural group, 0.15 for the TSP group (P=0.009) and 0.19 for the ISP group (P=0.084). Therefore, considering the width-to-length proportion of maxillary central teeth, no golden standard exists. The data were calculated and statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests (α=.05). Does apical root resection in endodontic microsurgery jeopardize the prosthodontic prognosis? For control groups, the flexural strength for PMMA (215.53 MPa) was significantly lower than for bis-acryl composite resin (240.09 MPa). A further 10 specimens served as a control group. Random-effects meta-analysis could be made in two studies, in which secondary caries incidence did not differ between margins placed subgingivally compared to equi- or supragingivally placed margins for a follow-up period up to ten years. Group B clearly showed provisional cement remaining, whereas the other groups showed almost no cement. The statistical difference was significant for the width-to-height ratio of central incisors to the golden standard of 80%. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version 16 and One-Way ANOVA was run to compare the shear strength between the groups. Nickel-chromium cast post-core transmitted the least amount of stresses to the dentin despite producing the maximum stress. The abutment(s) of a partial fixed dental prosthesis (PFDP) should have a minimal total occlusal convergence (TOC), also called a taper, in order to ensure adequate retention of a PFDP that will be made for the abutment(s), given the height of the abutment(s). ~~ Free Reading Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics 3e ~~ Uploaded By Astrid Lindgren, edition 5th edition download pdf contemporary fixed prosthodontics inside the overdue summer of 1975 three young dentists from england holland and japan met for the very first time at the faculty of dentistry in indianapolis they shared a common Thirty-six porcelain discs were fabricated out of which 18 each was subjected for autoglazing and overglazing. Materials and Method: Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). Contemporary fixed prosthodontics. One-way ANOVA showed that the application of different primers affected the shear bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia ceramic. The definitive retention increased when the abutments were treated with rubber cup/pumice or airborne particle abraded to remove the provisional cement. Find practical step-by-step guidelines to hundreds of fixed prosthodontics procedures! Data were analyzed by SPSS software and independent t-test. However, ethnicity has no association with the proportions of maxillary anterior teeth. Four types of metal-ceramic alloys, castable nonprecious nickel-chrome alloy, castable precious metal alloys containing 83% and 32% of gold, and millingable Pd-Ag alloy were used to make metal specimens (n=40). According to the previous studies; after corrosion the porcelain chipping is the next common cause of treatment failure in the metal-ceramic restorations [, ... Palladium (Pd), for instance, increases the porosities in the noble alloys and in case of poor wetting of porcelain, this element expresses a negative effect and reduces the bond between porcelain and metal [4, 13]. A contraction was noticed thereafter for all specimens, in both groups. The purpose of this paper is to review the validity of crown-to-root ratio in the apically resected teeth. For surface detail reproduction and transverse strength, rectangular stainless steel master die (Duke's die) was used and calibrations were made with Toolmaker's microscope and Instron universal testing machine respectively. Hanover: Quintessence, … Collected data were subjected to a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α=.05). "customer": { In contemporary dental practice, there is no remaining reason to use metallic posts, custom or prefabricated. Here, we have enveloped with embryonic dental follicle tissue around a HA-coated dental implant, and transplanted into the lower first molar region of a murine tooth-loss model. The specimens (n=20) were separated from the stainless steel die 1 hour after pouring. There were significant differences in the marginal overhang values between the 2 margins, but no significant differences were found between the material groups for overhang. Listen to eBooks - When you need to go screenless, the Text-to-speech tool will read your book aloud. Two-dimensional finite element stress analysis was performed on the mandibular second premolar. The author suggests that Dentists use high magnification loupes (×6-8 magnification or greater) or a surgical operating microscope when preparing crown abutments, to facilitate creating a minimum abutment TOC. The Student’s t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). Three-point bending test was performed with universal testing machine. Articulators 4. Data obtained during the first chewing cycle were analyzed. Therefore apical root resection is not so harmful as periodontal bone loss. Narrower posterior teeth (in the buccolingual direction) are often included in implant-supported prosthesis to reduce the area that transmits the bite force and thereby the load on the implants; and the pontics of tooth-supported prosthesis are sometimes narrow for a similar reason, that is, to reduce the load on abutment teeth (. In groups 2-5, post spaces were prepared after root canal treatment and clinical crown reduction up to 1.5 mm above the CEJ. Please. We propose that these differences are due to impairment or absence of sensory signaling from PMRs in the TSP and ISP group. Specific population characteristics and perception of beauty must be considered. Background: Dental impressions are a common source for transmission of infection between dental clinics and dental labs. mandibular motion against the maxilla, and the second is complementary mandibular movement, i.e. Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden pro-portion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. Methods: Ten same cases of3 unit FDPs epoxy models (abutment teeth 14 and 16) were manufactured. Fifteen standardized all-ceramic crowns were fabricated on a metal die using each technique: slip cast technique of VITA In-Ceram sprint Alumina (Group A as control) and plastic foil matrix technique of Turkom-Cera fused alumina core system (Group B). Search and navigate content across your entire Bookshelf library. The two-way ANOVA indicated that the shear bond strength was significantly affected by the surface treatment methods (p < 0.05), but there was no significant interaction between the ceramic systems. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. Incorporation of ferrule offered some degree of stress reduction in nonmetal post, and it increased the stresses within cervical dentin. Thus, this study represents the potential for a next-generation bio-hybrid implant for tooth loss as a future bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy. This study compared the bond strength of porcelain to millingable palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy, with that of 3 conventionally used metal-ceramic alloys. The role of the BDJ is to inform its readers of ideas, opinions, developments and key issues in dentistry - clinical, practical and scientific - stimulating interest, debate and discussion amongst dentists of all disciplines. (=.05) Results: Significantly higher mean (SD) marginal fitness (P. Apical surgery cuts off the apical root and the crown-to-root ratio becomes unfavorable. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, 5th Edition provides a strong foundation in basic science along with clear descriptions of clinical applications. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics 4th edition by Stephen F. Rosenstiel BDS MSD, Martin F. Land and Junhei Fujimoto Book name : Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics 4th edition Series : Prosthodontics Pages : 1152 pages Publisher: Mosby; 4 edition (June 7, 2006) Language: English ISBN-10: 0323028748 ISBN-13: … The samples were made of specific shape, size, and were of the recommended dimensions from investing self-cure acrylic strips to casted NiCr specimens Objective. This article reviews the dentistry literature on the ferrule effect, and presents alternative definitions for terms such as ferrule, the ferrule effect, and the ferrule tooth structure. It was observed from the study that failure threshold of the luting agent was influenced both by the elastic modulus of the luting agent and by the type of the crown. The bond strength data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe's tests (α=.05). Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, 5th Edition provides a strong foundation in basic science along with clear descriptions of clinical applications. Methods Therefore, the metal frameworks with 0.5 mm and 1 mm short of the finish line are recommended for anterior metal ceramic restoration having adequate fracture resistance. shoulder finishing line. About 50% of technicians were vaccinated against HBV. After firing of veneering porcelain the difference was insignificant. However, recently, due to the continuous rise in the price of gold, an interest towards materials to replace gold alloy is getting higher. A bio-hybrid artificial organ is an attractive concept to restore organ function through precise biological cooperation with surrounding tissues in vivo 2,3 . Interocclusal Records 5. The specimens were not cemented and the measurements were made at four points on metal dies using a stereomicroscope (×120). In the blood circulatory system, physical functions including pumping and filtration have been conven-tionally substituted using ventricular assist devices and ex vivo dialysis systems for heart and kidney failure, respectively 2,4, Purpose: The purpose this study was to evaluate the marginal fitness of metal copings fabricated using rapid prototyping method and to compare the fitness with copings by conventional method. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics 5th Edition provides a strong foundation in basic science along with clear descriptions of clinical applications. 1. In comparison to self-adhesive type, the universal resin cement provided lower bond strengths to both metal and glass-ceramic substrates in group 1. Despite manufacturers' efforts to make zirconia significantly more translucent, the transmittance values of these materials still do not match conventional lithium disilicate. Conclusions: Individuals with fixed tooth- or implant-supported fixed prostheses in both jaws demonstrate an altered performance during the first chewing cycle. In comparison with the maxillary teeth (1.29-1.78), the mandibular teeth yielded the higher R/C ratio (1.47-1.89), and this difference was significant in the females (P<.05). Improvement of three-dimensional digitizers with a laser beam system will be necessary for precise acquisition of the occlusal configuration. One tooth was prepared using standard procedures taught in the prosthodontic dental course; the other tooth was prepared with the new technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS 14 software. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Using more than 3,000 high-quality drawings and photographs, this reference covers everything from tooth preparation to prostheses … The impressions were poured with epoxy resin to fabricate dies. However, well-established prognostic variables include tooth mobility, alveolar bone support, root configuration, pulpal condition, opposing dentition, endodontic treatment completion and root/crown ratio (R/C ratio).2,3,4,5,6 The R/C ratio is a primary variable in the diagnosis of a tooth as an abutment for the various types of prosthetic restorations, such as fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) or removable partial dentures (RPDs) or overdentures.7,8. Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. Review of the results of the means showed statistically significant differences between the width ratio of right lateral teeth to the central teeth width with golden proportion (P<0.001). The difference was significant for the left side, too (P<0.001). Long-term clinical failures of cemented prosthesis depend, to a large extent, on the integrity of the luting agent.

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